The simple procedure of massaging the whole body below the neck with oil or powders of herbs in a direction opposite to the orientation of hair in the body is called as udvartana. Sharira-parimarjana is another name for this procedure. Here the direction of massaging is quite opposite to the one carried out in abhyanga.
Udvartana opens the circulatory channels, facilitates the metabolic activity and improves the complexion of the skin. By virtue of these therapeutic effects, one can obtain the following benefits by the udvartana therapy.
- Kaphahara * Alleviates vitiation of Kapha dosha.
- Medasah pravilayanam * Reduces excess of fat in the body.
- Sthirikaranamanganam * Increases the stability of the extremities.
- Tvakprasadakaram * Promotes the excellence of skin.
- Kantimat vapuh * Improves the body complexion.
- Vatahara * Corrects the imbalances of the Vata dosha.
- Gauravam hanti * Leads to a sense of lightness in the body.
- Daurgandhyam hanti * Eliminates the bad body odor, due to excessive sweating or for other reasons.
- Tangram * Prevents untimely drowsing.
- Kandu * Cures itching sensation
TYPES OF UDVARTANA
Depending upon the variation in the therapeutic effect there are two types of udvartana and are named Snigdha udvartana and Raksha udvartana.
If oily substances are used in the massage then it is called Snigdha udvartana. Contrary to this if dry powder of herbs is used with no addition of oil in the massage then the udvartana is known as tuksha variety. Depending upon the nature of drugs used during massage two sub-varieties. Depending upon the nature of drugs used during massage two sub-varieties of
Depending upon the nature of drugs used during massage two sub-varieties of udvartana are practiced and are listed below.
When a dry powder of herbs or oil is rubbed against the body then it is referred to as udgarshana.
The procedure of snehana, in which the paste of herbs moistened with oil is used during the massage and is called utsadana.
For the purpose of udvartana, oil is selected according to the Prakriti of the client. In the following list, different oils are mentioned that can be used in respective Prakriti for Snigdha udvartana.
- Vata prakriti * Himasagara taila
- Pitta prakriti * Chandanadi taila, chandana bala lakshadi taila.
- Kapha Prakriti * Triphaladya taila
- Sama Prakriti * Asanabilvadi taila
Application of the medicated oil, or else dusting of the herbal powder on the body followed by a massage in a direction opposite to that of the hair is the procedure of the udvartana.
The same is discussed in the following lines.
PREPARATION OF THE CLIENT
Morning time after getting up from the bed and after evacuating the bowel and bladder is an ideal time for this procedure. At the time of sunrise, udvartana should be performed in an empty stomach and before bath. Warming up exercise may be advised before the udvartana. After chanting the svastivachana hymn or prayer the therapist should carry out the udvartana procedure.
The client in a minimum dress is made to lie down on the abhyanga table. Udvartana is carried out in four different positions of the client. That include:
To begin with the client is made to lie down in the supine position and anterior of the body is treated with udvartana.
Following this, the client is placed in the left lateral position, and in this position right lateral aspect of the body is subjected to udvartana.
The client is now made to lie on his abdomen and the posterior part of the body is treated with udvartana. Then the client is placed in the right lateral position to treat the left lateral portion of the body. Every part of the body below the neck is subjected to massaging one after the other exerting firm pressure.
LINEAR MASSAGE ON ARMS
The therapist stands on one side of the table facing the head end. He then dusts the herbal powder on the client’s arm nearest to him. Following this massaging is done by moving the palmar aspect of both the hands starting from the wrist up to the shoulder. The same maneuver has to be carried out in the supine, lateral and prone position of the client.
CIRCULAR MASSAGE ON HANDS
After dusting the herbal powder on the client’s hand, massage should be done in circular fashion both on the palmar aspect as well as the dorsal aspect. Palmar aspect is massaged in the supine position and the dorsal aspect in the prone position of the client.
- CIRCULAR MASSAGE ON SHOULDER
To begin with, the herbal powder is dusted on the shoulder, and then the shoulder is massaged in circular fashion both in a clockwise and anticlockwise direction. The therapist does this massage by using both of his palms simultaneously. Also, the massage is repeated in all the supine, prone and lateral position of the client.
- LINEAR MASSAGE ON CHEST AND ABDOMEN
Initially, the herbal powder is dusted on the chest as well as the abdomen of the client in a supine position. The therapist places him both the palms at the shoulder region of the client with the fingers facing the opposite shoulder and then moves them towards the lower aspect of the abdomen exerting firm pressure.
- CIRCULAR MASSAGE ON CHEST
Following the dusting of the powder on the client’s chest, the therapist moves both the palms on the chest in circular fashion exerting firm pressure. Circular movement is done both in a clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
- CIRCULAR MASSAGE ON ABDOMEN
Similar to the chest, the abdomen is also massaged in a circular manner In the supine position of the client after dusting the herbal powder, also both in a clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
- LINEAR MASSAGE ON BACK
The back of the client is subjected to massaging when he is placed in the prone position. Following the dusting of the herbal powder on the back, the therapist places both the palms at the client’s shoulder. Then he moves his palms towards the buttock exerting firm pressure.
- LINEAR MASSAGE ON LEGS
After dusting the herbal powder the therapist places both the palms on the client’s ankle. Then he massages the leg by moving his palms towards the hip region exerting firm pressure. This maneuver is repeated in the supine, lateral and prone position of the client.
- RUBBING MASSAGE ON SOLES
For massaging the soles the therapist initially stabilized the client’s feet by holding it with one hand. Then taking some amount of herbal powder in his other palm rubs the soles in to and fro manner. This maneuver is done in both the supine and prone position of the client.
- MASSAGING THE LATERALS OF THE TRUNK
In the lateral position of the client, his sides of the trunk are subjected to massaging. For this after dusting the powder, the therapist moves his palms from the axilla to the hip of the client exerting a good amount of pressure.
Each part of the body is treated for about five minutes by these maneuvers. The therapist then moves to the opposite side of the table to treat the other side of the client’s body in all the three supine, lateral and prone positions. The entire above-said maneuvers have to be repeated on the other side to complete the procedure of udvartana. Alternatively, if two therapists are present, then it is most ideal to simultaneously massage both the left and right half of the client’s body.
This is the description of Raksha udvartana with herbal powders. The same maneuver is followed even in the case of Snigdha udvartana after anointing the client’s body with oil.
- DURATION OF UDVARTANA
Each part of the body below the neck is subjected to massage for about five minutes so that the whole procedure of udvartana completes in about half an hour.
The patient is asked to take rest for about 15 minutes and then allowed to take a bath.