१.यथार्थ अनुभव: प्रमा ,तत् साधनं च प्रमाणम् / उदयनाचर्या
२.प्रमीयते अनेन इति प्रमाणम्/
उपलब्धी,साधनं,ज्ञानं,परीक्षा प्रमाणमिती अनर्थानन्तरं
समाख्यानी वचनसामर्थ्यात /परीक्ष्यते यथा बुध्या
सा परीक्षा /प्रमीयते अनेन इति करणार्थ अभिधान: प्रमाण शब्द :/(गंगाधर )
३.परीक्ष्यते व्यवस्थाप्यते वस्तू स्वरूपं अनयेती परीक्षा / (चक्रपाणी )
The word Pramana means Proof or Evidence.
The Source or means by which a valid knowledge can be obtained s known as Pramana.
Number of Pramana-
There are mainly three way by which we get the knowledge .
But Acharya Charaka added one more pramana called as Yukti,fourth one
Fifth one-Upamana pramana-which was added by Acharya Sushruta.
आत्मेंद्रिय मनोर्थानां सन्नीकर्षात् प्रवर्तते
व्यक्ता तदत्वे या बुद्धि प्रत्यक्षं सा निरुच्यते // (च सु ११/२० )
The perception of knowledge obtained by combination or correlation of Atma,Indriya (sense organ),Manas(mind)and the Indriyarth(objects) is called as Pratyaksha Praman.
By the proper correlation we get the true or correct knowledge(Prama).While the improper correlation results in false or incorrect knowledge called as Bhrama or Mithyagyana.
With the help of Gnyanendriya,man get the knowledge about the surrounding things.
Charaka said that-Seeking to know the nature of disease,the physician should explore by means of his sense organ,the entire field of sensible data presents in the patient’s body in the following means-
|Twak (Skin)||Sparsha(Touch)||Sparshana (Palpitation)|
|Srota (Ears)||Shabda(sound)||Shravana(Ascultation and Percussion)|
वर्ण संस्थान प्रमाण छाया –Colour/Shape/Quality/External appearance,Measurement,number,proportion,complexion or lusters.
शरीर प्रकृति विकारी – Normal and abnormal appearance of body and organs.
अनुक्तानि –what ever else not described here but comes within the preview of eyes.
X-ray finding, Usg finding,CT scan finding,Microscopic vision and Magnifying lenses can be included.
By touch you can feel the-
सततं स्पन्दमानानां शरीरदेशनामरपन्दनम्- Absence of pulsation in contiueous pulsating organs like heart,pulse etc
नित्योष्मनां शितिभाव –Feeling of coldness in the portion where there always hot feeling
Temperature of body to be examined by touch
मृदुनां दारूणत्वं –Presence of hardness in soft organ
श्लक्ष्नां खरत्वं –Presence of roughness in smooth organ
सतामरादभाव –Absence of organ which are normally present
सन्धीनां संस्त्र भ्रंश च्यवनानी –Dislocation of joints from their places
मांस शोणितयोर्वातीभाव –Emansation of muscles tissue and blood
दारूणत्वं –Appearance of hardness
स्वेदानुबद्ध:स्तम्भो वा – perstitent sweating or total absence of sweating.
By using sthethoscope physician can examined heart sound,intestinal sound,sounds of respiratort tracts etc.
Also crepitus of joints can be heard by local examination.
Patient’s body smell also gives the idea about vyadhi. Bad odour of urine,stool also indicates the disease pathology.
The perception of Rasa can be done by indirectly.
By asking the question about patient’s taste of mouth
Impairment of taste of body-
Sweet-attraction of flies
Bad taste –causes going away of lice from body.