Kakamachi

काकमाची त्रिदोषघ्नी स्निधोष्णा स्वरशुक्रदा Ι

तिक्ता रसायनी शोथकुष्ठार्शोज्वरमेहजित Ι

कटूर्नेत्रहिता हिक्काच्छर्दीह्रद्रोगनाशिनी ΙΙ   भ. प्र.

Botanical Name :Solanumnigrum . Linn

Classification:

According To Modern

Kingdom –Plantae

Order –Polemoniales

Family     –Solanaceae

According To Ayurveda

Charak- TiktaSkanda

Sushruta- Surasadigana

Bhavprakash- GuducyadiVarga

Astanga Hrudaya-Surasadi gana

Dhanvantari Nighantu-Karveeradi varga

Shodhal Nighantu-Karveeradi varga

Madanphala Nighantu-Guduchyadi Varga

Raja Nighantu-Shatavaryadi varga

Kaiyyadeva Nighantu-Oushadhi varga

Shaligrama Nighantu-Guduchyadi varga

Priya Nighantu-Shatapushpadi varga

Other Names :

Hindi name- Makoi, Gurakani
English name- Black nightshade, Common nightshade, Hound’s berry, Garden Nightshade
Bengali name- Kakamachi, Dudakamai
Gujarathi name- Pludi
Kannada name- Kaagehanninagida, Kaakamache, Kakkehannu
Marathi name- Kaamani, Ghati, Makoi.
Malayalam name- Manithakkal, Kasumuthi, Karimthakkali
Punjabi name- Mako
Telugu name- Kanchiponda, Kamanchi-chettu
Tamil name- Manattakkali, Thennatakalipullum, Milagetakkali
Tulu name- Kaachiponda
Urdu name- Makoh

 

Sanskrit Synonyms –

Bahuphala-The plant yields many fruits

Sarvatika,Bahutikta-The fruits are bitter

Gucchaphala-The fruits are found in clusters

Kushtaghni-Treats skin diseases

Bahuphala-numerous fruits in bunch

Kakini,Vayasi,Kakmachi,Kakahva-The fruits are liked by crows

Jaghanephala,Matsyakshi,Rasayani

Gudaphala,Swadupakaphala-sweet fruits

General Information :

Habit- annual herb. Stem- Erect, More or less pubescent. Leaves- Simple, 2.5 to 9 cm long, 2 to 5 cm wide, ovate- lanceolate, sub acute or acuminate tip, sinuately toothed, tapering into the petiole. Petiole is 2 cm long. Inflorescence- 3 to 8 flowered Cyme. Floweres – Small. Fruits- Berries, 6 mm in diameter, globose, usually purplish black in colour. Seeds are yellow in colour.

 

Properties (Gunadharma)

Rasa-Tikta

Vipak- Katu

Virya- Anusna

Guna-Laghu, Ruksa

 

Specific Parts :

Panchanga, fruit

Doshaghnata :

Tridoshaghna

Shloka’s :

काकमाची त्रिदोषघ्नी स्निधोष्णा स्वरशुक्रदा Ι

तिक्ता रसायनी शोथकुष्ठार्शोज्वरमेहजित Ι

कटूर्नेत्रहिता हिक्काच्छर्दीह्रद्रोगनाशिनी ΙΙ   भ. प्र.

काकमाची त्रिदोषघ्नी सरा स्वर्या सतीक्तका l

हन्ति दोषत्रयं कुष्ठ वृष्या सोष्णा रसायनी l l ध नि

काकमाची कटूस्तीक्ता सोष्णा स्निग्धा रसायनी l

हृदया वृष्या सरा स्वर्या त्रिदोषघ्नी लाघुर्जयेत l

कुष्ठ शोफ प्रमेहार्श: श्वासकासारुची ज्वरान l l

कटूर्नेत्राहिता हिक्काछर्दी हृद्रोग नाशिनी l कै नि

 

Benefits :

External-

The paste of Kakmachi leaves applied externally ver the area affected with scabies,ring worm and vitiligo.

Poultice prepared with Kakmachi leaves applied externally to treat localised swelling.

The paste o Kakachi leaves with ghee is applied externally over the affected area of Herpes.

In eye disease like conjunctivitis and itching sensation ,the eye is fumigated with the leaf applied with ghee or butter.

Nasya of oil prepared by kakmachi leaves,sesame seeds and sesame oil is given to strengthen the hair roots and improve the colour of scalp

Gargling of Kakmachi leaves decoction is advisiable in diseases of oral cavity like gingivitis,mouth ulcers etc.

The fresh juice of leaf is slightly heated ad used as ear drops to control the earache.

Kakmachi leave chewing is advisiable in Mukh pak or Stomatitis.

Internal-

Being deepana, yakritottejana, pittasarak and virechana, it is used in agnimandya, yakridvikaras, chhardi, shotha, arsha, udara, jeernapravahika and pleehavriddhi .beingraktashodhana and shothhara,it is used  in kushta, Vatarakta and amavata; hridroga and raktabharadhikya. Phalachoorna should be used in svarabheda ,kasa and hikka being kaphaghna, hikkanigrahana and shvasahara.

Kushta (Skin diseases)

paste of kakamachi (Solanumnigrum ) is beneficial in kustha (Skin diseases).It is appled on affected area.

Kotha (Urticarial patches)

Sunthi (Zingiberofficinale) is mixed with juice of kakamachi (Solanumnigrum ) if applied will alleviate kotha (urticarial patches).

Ghee processed with Kakamachi leaf juice is used in rat poisoning.

Fruit juice of Kakmachi or Leaf juice of Kakachi is used in the treatment of cough and asthma.Dose-10-15ml

Decoction of Kakmachi leaf and fruit is used in slenomegaly and hepatomegaly.Dose-30-40ml

cold infusion of kakmachi leaves and fruits are used in the treatment of fever and nausea.Dose-30-40ml

Kakmachi swarasa is used as a antidote to opium poisning and to treat rat bite cases.

Decoction prepared with Kakamachi root in a dose of 10-20ml helps in Insomnia

Vegetable prepared by using Kakmachi leaves and jeera and onion is advisiable in stomachache and stomach ulcers

 

Formulation (Kalp) :

Kakamachiarka.

Kalakuta rasa

Hridayavarana Rasa

Mahavishgarbha tail

Bhrihat sarva Jwarahara lauh

 

Dosage :

Svarasa – 10 to 20 ml.

Phalachoorna – 1 to 3 gm.

Arka- 20 to 25 ml.

 

Research Corner :

Aqueous extract of Solanumnigrum leaves ( AESN ) is evaluated for its  protective effect on two rat models : (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (Chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (5) methorexate (Chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change. Food intake and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis. Signification (P<0.05) improvement in food intake was  also observed in AESN treated group. Aqueous extract of  Solanumnigrum leaves have protective  effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats.

Side Effects-

Poisoning occurs mainly from ingestion of plant,specially the unripened fruits.The main signs and symptoms are-on the CVS(tachycardia,arrhythmia and hypotension),on the CNS(delirium,psychomotor,agitation,paralysis,coma and convulsions) and on the GIT(nausea,vomiting,diarrhea)

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