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ASTHISAMHARAKA

Botnical Name :  Cissus quadrangularis

ASTHISAMHARAKA PLANT

  • Classification of : Asthisamharaka

According To Modern :

  1. Kingdom : Plantae
  2. Order :  Vitales
  3. Family :  Vitaceae
  4. Genus :  Cissus
  5. Species :  Quadrangularis

According To Ayurveda :

Caraka     –      Not Included in Varga

Susruta    –      Not Included Gana

Bh. Pr. NI –      Guducyadi Varga

·                   Other Name Of Asthisamharaka

  1. Family Name :
  • Drakshakula [Vitaceae]
    1. English :
  • Veld grape
  • Veldt grape
  • Winged treebine
  • Edible stemmed vine
  • Adament creeper,
  • Bone setter

 

  1. Hindi :
  • Hadjod
  • Hadjora
    1. Marathi :
  • Ghanasakande
  • Ghanasvel
  • Ghonasakande
  • Kandavel
    1. Sanskrit :
  • asthisamharaka
    1. Tamil :
  • Pirandai
  • Pindayi
  • Changalaparanda
    1. Telugu :
  • Nalleru
    1. Thai :
  • Phet sangkhat
  • Phet cha sung khaat
  • Samroi to
  • San cha khuat
    1. Zambia :
  • Namunungwa
    1. Gujarati :
  • Hadsankal
    1. Kannad :
  • Mangroli
    1. Bengali:
  • Hasjora
  • Harbhanga

 

  1. Irula
  • Naralai kodi
    1. Malayalam
  • Peranta
  • Chanamparanda
  • Changalamparanda
    1. Others
  • Winged Treebine
  • Perandai
  • Veldt Grape
  • Veld Grape
  • Chanamparanda
  • Naralaikodi

 

·                   General Information :

Cissus Quadrangularis (also called Hadjod and Asthisamharaka) is an ayurvedic herb used for strengthening bones and joints and promoting bone growth. It increases bone mineral density and enhances the rate of fracture healing.Leaves- Simple, broadly reniform, entire or toothed, rounded truncate or cuneate at the base., Flower- small, greenish in shortly peduncled cymes. Petals are 4 hooded at the apex. Fruit- ovoid or globose, red berries with ellipsoid seeds

·                     Type Of Plant  :          Perennial Plant

·                     Origin               :          Inde’s

·                     Multiplication :           Sowings, cutting

·                     Exposure          :           Sunny

·                     Minimum temperature : 40 to 5°C

·                     Growing Fast

·                     Hardiness         :          Tender

·

·

·                   Properties (Gunadharma)

·                     Rasa         –  Rasa,

·                     Vipak      –   Madhura,

·                     Virya       –  Ushna,

·                     Mu. Gun –  Laghu, Rooksha

·                   Specific Parts-

·                     Khanda

·                     Patra

·                   Doshaghnata

·                     Kapha, Vataghna, Pittavardhana.

·                   Sholka’s

·                   Benefits

  • Bone Fracture

Cissus Quadrangularis facilitates bone fracture healing by accelerating the proliferative physiological process in the bone. It increases the rate of bone regeneration and improves blood circulation and nutrient supply to the bone. It preserves bone tissue anabolism and regeneration and promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. (12)

In ayurvedic medicine, Lakshadi Guggul is commonly used for this purpose in which Hadjod (C. Quadrangularis) is an important ingredient. This formulation is commonly co-administered with Abha Guggul and Gandha Thailam.  The fresh juice of Hadjod stem is more effective for accelerating the fracture healing. Ayurvedic herbalists commonly use it in the dosage of 20 ml twice daily along with milk or Cow’s Ghee for hastening the recovery from bone fractures. Where fresh herb is not available, its aqueous extract or powder can also be used.

A paste prepared from Cissus Quadrangularis stem and leaves is applied on the fractured part for hastening recovery. It was commonly used during ancient times in India when there was no orthopedic (plaster) cast available. During that time, its paste was applied to fractured part or after aligning the broken bone, and then covered with a clean cloth and bind with wooden stick cover.

  • Help heal broken bones

Cissus quadrangularis is known for its ability to help broken bones heal faster. There was a study done on two groups of dogs that proved the healing effects of cissus quadrangularis. One of the groups was given cissus quadrangularis extract while the other group was given a placebo. The results of the study were that the dogs that were given the cissus quadrangularis extract were completely healed after 21 days. The dogs that were given a placebo were still unhealed after 21 days.

 

  • Osteoporosis

Cissus Quadrangularis is helpful in case of osteoporosis. It increases bone strength and restores the bone mass. It increases mineralization in the bone and promotes the formation of the mineral nodules. It promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. It increases bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces the susceptibility to bone fracture. (1314)

In Ayurveda, Cissus Quadrangularis juice or Hadjod powder is used along with Godanti BhasmaMuktashukti BhasmaPraval BhasmaKukkutandatvak BhasmaAbhrak BhasmaYashad BhasmaAmlaArjuna, and Ashwagandha for treating osteoporosis. This combination helps to restore the mineralization of the bone and increase the bone strength.

  • Weight Loss (Obesity)

However, a study suggests Cissus Quadrangularis exhibits antioxidant and weight reducing properties. It reduces body fat and improves overall lipid profile. (1516)

Cissus Quadrangularis and Irvingia Gabonensis combination is also effective for reducing weight. A study found the potential synergistic effect of these herbs in the management of obesity. (17)

According to ayurvedic properties of Cissus Quadrangularis (Hadjod), it boosts metabolism and forms the bones. Weaker bones are found in obese people, according to ayurveda concept of DHATUAGNI and in reality as well. According to ayurveda, optimum MEDA (Fat) DHATUAGNI is required to form the bone. The bones are well-grown when a person has optimum MEDA DHATUAGNI. Now, modern research studies also suggest the same things, but with different words – excess fat or adipose tissue negatively affects the bone health. A low bone mineral density is commonly found in obese people. (1819)

  • Weight loss

When cissus quadrangularis is combined with a healthy diet and exercise plan, it can help promote weight loss. There was a study done where one group was given daily cissus quadrangularis extract while another group was given a placebo. The results were that the group given the cissus quadrangularis lost 187 percent more weight. Researchers believe that this supplement helps suppress appetite and burn fat. Researchers also believe that this supplement can help increase lean muscle mass.

 

  • Effects on Lipid Profile –Cholesterol, Triglycerides

According to a preliminary clinical study, Cissus Quadrangularis improves metabolism and lipid profile. It reduces total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Further, it also increases HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol). (20)

  • Joint Pain in athletes due to strenuous exercises

Cissus Quadrangularis has anodyne and anti-inflammatory actions. So, it can help to reduce joint inflammation and pain. Preliminary evidence showed improvement in joint mobility and reduction in joint pain in athletes who experienced joint pain due to strenuous exercises. (21)

  • Improve Digestion

The aerial parts of Cissus Quadrangularis have a digestive action. It improves digestive capacity and liver function. However, C. Quadrangularis is not commonly used for this purpose. In folk medicine, a veggie prepared from its leaves or chutney prepared from aerial parts of C. Quadrangularis is also used to improve digestion.

In traditional medicine, C. Quadrangularis stem powder is mixed with ginger powder in equal proportion and advised to take it for improving appetite.

 

  • Gout (Gouty Arthritis)

Cissus Quadrangularis can be used as supportive medicine to improve joint mobility. It also helps to reduce joint inflammation and pain in patients suffering from gouty arthritis.

  • Syphilis

In traditional medicine, fresh stems of C. Quadrangularis are warmed keeping them in burning coals for a few minutes. Then the juice is extracted from them. 20 ml extracted juice is added in 20 ml Ghee and advised to take it after meal twice daily for 7 days. This combination helps to treat syphilis and reduces its symptoms.

  • Menorrhagia

(Abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods)

20 ml Fresh juice of Cissus Quadrangularis stems and leaves is used along with 3 grams white sandalwood powder (Santalum Album) and 1 teaspoon honey to treat excessive bleeding occurring during menstruation.

  • Pyorrhea & Gingivitis

Gargling with Cissus Quadrangularis Juice helps to treat pyorrhea and reduces the inflammation of the gums. It clears plaque and tartar. It also has an antimicrobial action that prevents and stops microbial growth.

 

·                    Formulations  (Kalpa)

§     Pathya punarnavadi kashayam

§     Laksha guggulu

§     Valiya chinchadi lehyam

·                    DOSAGE

§     Svarasa – 10 to 20 ml

·                   Chemical Composition

Aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis contain ketosteroids, freidelin, resveratrol, and Quadrangularin A as main bioactive constituents. 100 grams C. Quadrangularis contains 327 mg Vitamin C and 696 mg Vitamin E.

Quercetin and Kaempferol are also present in ethanol extract of C. Quadrangularis.

Around 2.5% friedelin is present in the ethanolic extract of C. Quadrangularis aerial parts.

Methanolic extract of aerial parts of C. quadrangularis contains 0.47% stimasterol and 1.15% β-sitosterol. Ethyl acetate extract contains 0.16% stimasterol and 0.5% β-sitosterol. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were undetectable in water extract.

It also contains acetylated glycosides of catalpol (6′-O-trans-cinnamoyl-catalpol; 6-O-m-methoxy-benzoyl catalpol, and 6-O-{2, 3-dimethoxy}-t-cinnamoyl-catalpol). It contains stilbene compounds including resveratrol glycosides, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol, parthenocissine A, genistein, quadrangularin A-C, and daidzein.

·                   Home Remedise

  • In fractured bones :

A poultice prepared of the stem can be applied on the affected site for quick healing of the bone.

 

  • Menorrhagia : 

The fresh juice of this plant mixed with sandalwood paste, ghee, honey (in unequal quantity) can be consumed.

 

  • Irregular menstruation and dysfunctional uterine bleeding :

Crush the stem and leaves together, extract the juice, mix ½ ounce of this juice with equal quantity of honey and drink this twice daily to get beneficial results.

  • Bhagba (Fracture)

In case of Bhagna (Fracture) one should take milk processed with Asthisamhara (Cissus quadrangularis ), ghee, lac. Wheat and Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna).

  • Putra labhartha (To achieve conception)

To achieve conception, lady after having sesonal bath should consume juice and paste of Vajra vallari (Cissus quadrangularis) mixed with oil.

·                   Reserch corner

A study is conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract on antoxidant or oxidant status in Diabetes mellitus. The ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis is rich in quercetin and this indicated that it is good supplement for the attenuation of diabetic  complications.

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