agar-herb

AGAR/AGURU

अगरुष्नं कटू त्वच्यं तित्कं तीक्ष्णं च पित्तलम

|लघुकर्णाक्षिरोगघ्नं शितवातकफप्रनुत ||भा. प्र

BotnicalName : Aquilariaagallocha Linn.

AGAR/AGURU

AquilariaMalaccensis.

Aquilaria – Pertaining to eagle.

  • Classification :
    • According To Modern,
      1. Kingdom – Angiosperms,Plantae
      2. Order – Malvales
  • According To Ayurveda,

Charak-

  • Sheetaprashamana,
  • Shvasahara,
  • Shirovirechana,
  • Tiktaskandha

Sushrut-

  • Eladi,
  • Shalasaradi,
  • Shleshmasamshamana

Vagabhata-

Salasaradi

Eladi

·         Other Name OfAgar

  1. Family Name :
    • Thymelaeaceae
  2. Marathi Name :
    • Agaru,
  1. Sanskrit Name :  
    • Aguru,
    • Loha-It is heavy and black similar to iron
    • Krimij,
    • Krimijagdh ( Because it’s infected ),
    • Krumija,
    • Krimijagdha,
    • Anaryaka,
    • Vishvaroopakam,
    • Pravara,
    • Jongakam,
    • ShreshtaVriksha,
    • Vamshika
  2. Hindi :
    • Agar,
  1. English/Arabic :
    • Agarwood,
    • Eaglewood,
    • Oud,
    • Oodh
  1. And Other State :
    • Bengali Name- Agaru,Agorogach
    • Telugu Name- Agni,
    • Tamil Name- Aggalichandanam
    • Gujarati Name-Agar
    • Bengali name- Agaru
  2. And Other Country :
    • Europe – Agilawood, Eaglewood
    • Japan – Jinko
    • Chinese – Chenxiang
    • Cambodia – ChannCrassna
    • Indonesia / Malay – Gaharu
    • Laos – Mai Ketsana
    • Thailand – Mai Kritsana
    • Myanmar – ThitMhwae

·         General Information :

Evergreen large tree with pilose young shoots. Leaves linear lanceolate to lanceolate and obovate, oblong, 2 mm long petiole, acute or rounded at the base, 5-9 cm long, faintly parallel nerved.

Flowers – small, greenish, slender pilose pedicels, 4-6 mm long, forming sessile or shortly peduncled umbels arising laterally from the younger branchlets, perianth 5 mm long, peri-anth-scales oblong, villose, alternating with the staments, filaments red at apex, ovary is tomentose.

Fruit- capsule, obovate – cuneate, slightly compressed , 2.5 cm long, densely tawny or yellowish tomentose.

Useful part – heart wood/ wood

Agar is the pathological product of a fungal disease contracted by the tree chiefly through wounds on the trunk.

There are about 17 species in the genus Aquillaria and 8 are known to produce Agar oil. Aquillariaagallocha is synonym for A.malaccensis, A.secundria.

Agarwood is famous for its role in making of incense sticks for various ceremonies. The wood is also used to make beautiful carvings and sculptures. In many countries of Southeast Asia, the Agarwood beads are made to keep oneself safe from evil spirits and bringing good luck.

·         Types of Plant’s

There are Four Type’s of Agaru

  1. KrisnaAgaru
  2. KaashthAgaru ( yellowish )
  3. DaahaAgaru
  4. MangalyaAgaru

·         Properties (Gunadharma)

·         Rasa – Katu, Tikta,

·         Vipak – Katu,

·         Virya–Ushna,

·         Mu. Gun-Laghu,Ruksha,Tikshna,

·         Specific Parts-

§  Kandsar, oil (Tailam)

·         Doshaghnata

§  Kaphaghna

§  Vataghna

§  Pittakar

·         Sholka’s

अगरुष्नं कटू त्वच्यं तित्कं तीक्ष्णं च पित्तलम |

लघुकर्णाक्षिरोगघ्नं शितवातकफप्रनुत ||भा. प्र

कृष्ण गुणाधीकं तत्तु लोहवव्दारौ मज्जति l

अगरुप्रभव :स्नेह :कृष्णागुरुसम :स्मृत : l l भा प्र

राजार्ह तच्च मलीनं कालेयं शीर्षकं लघु l

कृष्णागुरु :कटूस्तीक्तस्तीक्ष्णोष्ण :पित्तलो लघु :l l

कर्णाक्षीरोगत्वग्दोषशीतवातकफप्रणुत l

कृष्ण:प्रधानमगुरु :लोह्वन् मज्जते जले l

अगरुप्रभव :स्नेह :कृष्णागुरुसम: स्मृत :l l की नि

              ———-

रास्नागुरुनी शीतापनयनप्रलेपनाना | (च.सु.अ.२५)

अर्का गुरु गुडू चिनां टिकता ना मु श्नमूच्यते| (च.सु.अ.२६)

·Benefits

Application of Rasna and Agaru is best in removing coldness,on external application.Ref-Charaka Sutrasthana 5

   Fever :

Agar boiled with 3 cup of water and reduced to half. Then this decoction drink for 3 days for fever.

· Head lice :

Application of  agar powder all over the head for 30 min is effective in lice.

· Heartburn:

Inhalation of agarwood fume helps in heartburn and in acid refiux.

· Liver Disorders:

Smoke of agarwood helps in curing of liver disorders.

· Vomiting

Smoke of agar wood helps in suppression of nausea and  vomiting

Wrinkles :

Daily application of agar powder with milk over face reduces wrinkles

· Skin :

Application of agar powder with rose water for half an hour increases luster of skin.

· Itching :

Paste of agar wood powder with water over affected area reduces itching.

· Rheumatism

gum of agar used in Rheumatism.Daily application of this over  the affected part reduces swelling and pain.

Usage in Ear,noseand throat disoders-

Shruti Netrarujahara-Useful in ear and eye disoders.Hence it is used as ingredient in Anu tailam.

It is also used as an ingredient in Arimedadi Tilam-Used for oil pulling or gargling.It helps to improve sthrength of teeth and sense organs

2 drops of Agarwood oil is applied to betel leaf and given to the patient to eat to treat asthma.

The paste of hot potencied agaru is smeared over the surface of skin exposed to cold weather to mitigatae the cold effect caused by frost in cold seasons.

Agaru lepa is advisiable in patient with fevers with chills

After shodhan karma,agaru powder with honey is given .This helps in mitigating the remnant doshas within the channels of pranavaha srotas.

The fumagation of Agaruis advisiable in bronchitis ,it expells the adherent mucous from bronchioles by its ushna and tikshna guna

local application of agaru lepa is advisiable in pain associated with osteo arthritis,gouty arthritis and other vatic disoders.

Agaru lepa is also advisiable in eczematous condition.It makes the skin soft and removes the roughened flankes from skin surface.

Agarwood oil is used as ear drops in the conditions like otalgia and suppurative otitis

Local application of Agaru paste over the eyelids gives relief from pain and inflammatory condition.

Paste of agaru is applied externally over affected area .It gives relief from pain,bad odour,and inflammation.

Herbal tea of agaru leaves is used to relieve the constipation

Tea prepared from agaru bark is used as a blood purifier

The smook of agaruwood is also inhaled in cases of chronic sinusitis,rhinitis and allergic problems

·         Formulations (Kalpa)

Ayaskritti             -Anemia

Rasnadi Kashayam    -Rheumatic arthritis and osteoarthritis

Khadiradi Vati           Mukharoga

Himasarga Tail          Vata disoders

Anu Tailam                 Diseases of ear,nose and throat

Erimedadi tailam      Skin and mouth disoders

§  Agarvaditaila.

·         DOSAGE

§  Choorna – 0.5 to 1 gm.

§  Taila – 1 to 2 drops.

·         Chemical Composition

Aloe wood has abundant resinous matter. Sesquiterpine alcohol possesses the characteristic odour of the wood. It also contains an essential oil.

Agar is a mixture of indigestible polysaccharides agarose and agaropectin, which are composed of galactose molecules, some of which contain sulfur.

·         Home Remedies

a)      HikkaSwasa (Hiccough and Dyspnoea)

Agarucurna taken with madhu is very effective in Hikka and swasa.

b)     Kasa (Cough)

In kasa (cough), Agarucurna should be taken with madhu (Honey).

c)      LavanaMeha (Diabetes)

Susrutacarya recommends the kwatha (Decoction ) prepared from Patha and Agaru in LavanaMeha.

d)     Sotha (Oedema)

Lepa (Application ) of Canda (Angelica glauca) and agaru (Aquillariaagallocha) is very effective in Sotha (Oedema).

e)      TwakVikara (Skin disease)

The Thaila (Sneha) prepared by sarala (Pinusroxburghi) Pitadaru (Berberisaristata), Simsapa (Dalbergiasissoo) and Agaru is efficacious in Dadru and KitibhaKustha.

·         Research Corner

1.      One of the important pest was Heortiavitessoides (Pyrahdae :lepidopteria ) Moore, which damage the leaf, Vegetable buds and tender shoots causing adverse effect on the growth of the tree.

[Gurung D.N. & Sharma, P.C. on the insects pest of aquillariaagallocha (Roxb). News letter, Division of plant protection , rain forest research institute, forhat Assam (1996)]

2.      A study was carried out to find the differences in composition of oils obtained from healthy, naturally infected and artificially screws wounds eagle wood using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, investigations showed a marked difference between the oils obtained from each with regards to their quality.

[Md. Nazrul Islam Bhuiyar, Jaripa Begum and Md. Nurul Huda Bhaiyan, Analysis of essential oil of aglewood tree (AqulanaagallochaRoxb)by gas chromatography mass spectrometry , Bangladesh j. Pharmacol , 2009 ; 4:24 -28 (http://dx.doi.org/10-3329/bjp.vxii.851).

  1. Aquillochin, isolated from the whole plant of aquillochin, agallocha, bhandari, has been shown to be coumarinolignan. [Prabhabhandari, Pushpa part, R.P Rastogi; aquillochin, a coumarinolignan from A agallocha, phytochemistry, 1982; 21(8);2147-2149 (http;//dx.doi . org / 10 1016/0031-9422 (82)83075-6).
  2. methanolic extract of A. agallocha showed the presence of alkaloids, anthroquinones, triterpenoids, tannins, fixed oils fats and glycosides, whereas Saponins, fixed oils and fats. Alkaloids, Triterpenoids were found in the aqueous extracts. The highest alkaloid content was in the queous extract of the bark.

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