Means Post –digestive rasa.
“Parinaam Lakshano Vipaka: //”
The end result (parinaam) of digestion of dravya /substance is called as vipaka.
Jatharenagnina yogat yadudetirasantaram/ Rasanam parinamant sa vipak eti smrutaha// As.Hru.su 9
The final outcome of biotransformation of rasa of given dravya hrough the action of jatharagni i.e end product or the transformed state of ingested substance after digestion or metabolism is called as “vipak.”
The food or diet which we consumed, it gets absorbed and then gets transformed. This stage of transformation of ingested substances is called as Vipaka..
After intake of food,the process of jatharagni is carry out on aahar dravya and it ulters the ahar in rupa and rasa,which results in saar-kitta vibhajan.The saar bhag of ahar rasa goes to every part of the body by systemic circulation with help of vyana vayu.This sara bhag resides in all dhatus and get metabolised by respective dhatwagni.
Samakya vipaka-Proper transformation of dravya gives beneficial effects on body alled as samyaka vipaka or samyakapratyayarabdha.
Mithya-vipaka or Vichitra pratyayarabdha-Improper transformation of dravya gives side effects on body.
The vipak can be assessed by its action on dosha,dhatu and koshta.
Different Types of Vipaka-
Types of vipaka depends on different view and theories .They are-
Shadvidha vipaka vada-6
Niyata o yastha rasa vipaka vada
Aniyata vipaka vada
Panchvidh vipaka vada
Trividha vipaka vada
Dvividh vipaka vada
Shadvidha Vipaka vada-
Yatha rasa vipaka vada-According to this theory each rasa will undergo its individual vipaka result in six vipakas respectively.
Ex madhura rasa gives rise to madhura vipaka.
There are several expections present for this theory .
Ex brihi rice is madhura rasatmaka but amla vipaki in nature,while amalki is amla rasatmaka but madhura vipaki.
This Shadvidh vipaka vad was explained by Accharya Sustrut and Nagarjuna.
Acharya explain this theory by giving the example that the seed of yava or brihi plant produces the same plants not other plant.
Aniyata Vipaka Vada—Some acharyas state that ,ipaka of dravya is depend upon the dominance of rasa present in that dravya.This dominant rasa nullify the effect of other rasa .
Many aacharyas did not agree with this theory. Because Ashwagandha is Tikta rasatmak but it is katu vipaki while Pippali is Katu rasatmka but Madhura vipaki.
2) Panchavidha Vipaka-vada-
This theory of Vipakas is based on the basis of Panchabhutas by acharya Sushtruta. Panchabhotika dravyas undergoes their respective bhutagni paka.
The five vipakas are-
These all 5 comes under 2 vipaka.
Parthiva and Aapya vipakas – guru
while taijasa, vayavya and nabhasa dravyas – laghu vipaka
‘Sarvam dravyam panchabhoutikam asminnarthe|’
All dravyas are panchabhoutika. After food ingestion, due to metabolism, panchamahabhuta get converted into simplified form from complicated one; which is nothing but pakakriya, called as ‘Vipaka’.
This is widely accepted t6heory of vipaka.
‘Tridha vipako dravyasya swadwamlokatukatmakaha|’
Ashtang hrudaya sutra.1
Acharyas like Charaka, Vagbhata and Parashar explained this trividha vipaka-vada.
The six rasa undergoes in to three vipaka.they are-
-Madhura and Lavana rasa -Madhura Vipaka’
-Amla rasa – Amla Vipaka,
-While katu, tikta and kashaya rasa – katu vipaka.
According to Parashara,
Amla ras-Amla vipaka
Katu rasa-Katu vipaka
Acharya Sushruta explained the dwividha vipaka vada as Madhura and Katu vipaka. As madhura vipaka consists of guru , snigdha, sheeta, pichchhila gunas; it is called as guru vipaka.While Katu vipaka, due to its vishada, tikshna, ruksha, laghu gunas called as ‘Laghu Vipaka’. The transformation of food and drug material will end with genesis of either guru guna or laghu guna.
Charcteristics of Vipaka
1) Madhura Vipaka
1. Snigdha, guru
2. Kapha dosha and shukra dhatu vardhaka
4. Srushta vinmutra
2) Amla Vipaka
3) Katu Vipaka
1. Ruksha, laghu
Factors Altering Vipaka / Causes of Change in Vipaka
1) Dravya pramana (doses)
2) Sanskara (process of pharmacological preparation)
3) Satmya (Habit formation)
4) Agni balabala ( digestive power)
5) Desha (place)
6) Kala (time)
7) Samyog (different combinations)
Superiority of Vipaka
Superiority of vipaka is explained by Bhadanta Nagarjuna as follows-
No. Superiority Cause
( Responsible factor) Stimuation or suppression of doshas is undrer the control of vipaka (doshakshayavruddhi)
( Tissue construction) Building up various tissues of the body is possible by digestion/ metabolism.
(Dependancy for therapeutic effect) Proper or improper vipaka decides either to exhibit good or ill effects.
4) Shastra pramanya
(Emphasis by classics) Classical texts or treatises quote vipaka as an important entity of dravya.
Properties and Functions of Vipaka-
|Types of Vipaka||Properties||Effects On dosha||Effects on dhatus||Efeect on Malas|
|Madhura||Sigdha,gura||Enhances the Kapha and decreases vata-pitta||Improves the dhatus,Sukrala||Increases the quantity of stools and urine|
|Amla||Sigdha,laghu||Enhances pitta,subsides vata||sukrahara||Increases the quantity of stools and urine|
|Katu||Ruksha,laghu||Enhances vata,subsides kapha||Sukrahara||Decrease the quantity of stool|