Shat kriya kala –Shat means six ,kriya means action or treatment and kal –means time or period.It provide the knowledge how illness produces and manifest step by step.Inshort ,Six stages through which doshas travel and creat the disease.
Concept of Shatkriyakala is described by Aacharya Sustruta.By this we can stop the disease pathogenesis at early stage.If the disease detected earlier,then it will be easy to neutralise the disease.
Early diagnosis,prognosis of disease,prevention and cure of disease can be possible.Out of which first 3 i.e sanchaya,prakopa and prasar are subclinical stages while the later three i.e sthansansamshraya,yukti and bheda are clinical stages of the pathogenesis.
The last two stages of this entire process involve the detection and complications of disease formation. These six stages or better known as shat kriya kal in Ayurveda are described as unique and they permit the thorough recognition and elimination of diseases long before it progresses into evidently differentiated clinical symptoms. In Ayurveda, aama’s toxicity and the mobility of the doshas compose the key components in the complex disease process.
The shat kriya kal in Ayurveda or the better known as the six stages of disease process are described as follows
Sanchaya means accumulation. It is the stage of accumulation of doshas in their own natural sites. It is the first phase of shat kriya kal. In this stage accumulation of Aam occure.Aam is formed from improper digestion.This aama accumulates in the gastro-intestinal tract of the body.This condition of disease manifestation is primarily associated with Kapha imbalance accumulates in the stomach. Ayurveda states that when aama results from Pitta imbalance it gets collected in the small intestine and it amasses in the colon when gets connected to a Vata dysfunction. This aama affects on the normal functioning of doshas which produces mild symptoms that can be easily felt. These symptoms are formed due to physiological imbalance.as these symptoms are mild in nature and disappear in few hours,hence people get ignore these . And this habit of ignoring them instead of recognizing and eliminating their root causes, people invite the disease process to gain a strong footing in the body. Ayurveda, these symptoms alert towards an imbalance in the body that is likely to occur. In this phase there is aversion towards similar quality and attraction towards opposite qualities of diet,drugs etc.
It is the second stage of shat kriya kal .In this stage more accumulation of doshas occure.The accumulated doshas are start to get more prakupit (vitiated).And this more vitiated doshas will start to move from their natural sites. It is translated as provocation or aggravation stage of doshas. Though the prakopa phase does not manifest the clearly differentiated clinical symptoms that allopathic medicine can recognize, the Ayurvedic physicians confirm the aggravated state of aama through pulse diagnosis. And accordingly, the Ayurvedic physician recommends some dietary and behavioural changes in order to reverse the prakopa stage.
It is the third stage of shat kriya kal in Ayurveda. Prasar means to spread.In this stage the vitiated doshas spread over in all direction and extend to other parts ,orans nd system of the body.The accumulated aama also starts to overflow in gastrointestinal tract.In this prasaravastha one,two or all three doshas with rakta are involved.The doshas travels in body along with the important nutrients to the dhatus. Its stickiness stops it from being transported back to the gastrointestinal tract. It is the stage of migration. Degree of Prakopa decide whether the vitiated dosha stay as it is or transfer to the sthansamshraya stage.
It is the fourth phase of shat kriya kal .Sthanasamsraya means getting localised at one place or taking shelter in one place.It is the phase in which the exciated preading dosas ,having extended to other parts of body starts to accumulated in weak places or weak sites on the body which is formed due to Khavaigunya or strotovaigunya or pre-exisiting defect of part involved.The aama which is migrated also resides in defective or weak dhatu.This localisation of dosha leads to ‘Dosha-dushya sammrchana i.e interaction of vitiated doshas with local tissues.
This doshya-dushya sammruchanna futher leads to structural damage and dysfunctioning of body system.And this is the stage of start of real disease .The pro-dormals signs and symptops I.e purvarupa stars to appear in this stage.
Factors like previous illness,seasonal changes,stress,apathyakar ahar-vihar in past days,exposure to radition ects are responsible for weakness in particular tissue.And this factors determine that which specific dhatu are predisposed to accept and be damaged by vitiated dosha.
It is the fifth stage of shat kriya kal in Ayurveda .The word Vyakta means something which can be seen. It is also called as Stage of symptom manifestation. In this stage clearly differentiated symptoms are appears first.This stage refers to completion of sthanasamsraya stage.
In this stage the damage and dysfunction extend to that level which can cause actual activation of illness.This is the acute condition of disease.
It is the sixth and final stage of shat kriya kal in Ayurveda.This stage is also known as Stage of complicatons.The word bheda means differentiation. By the fifth stage ‘Vyakta’ we come to know the general diagnosis while this Bheda avastha confirms the differential diagnosis.If disease is not treated properly at this stage ,then it will cause chronic,incurable and irreversible structural damage.The disease in this stage leads to development of complications.And this leads to formation of another disease.This stage results in severe impairment of dhatu function,serious damage to strotas and the complications that involves related dhatus.The disease at this stage is difficult to treat.
This phase offers a detailed understanding of the group of symptoms that have surfaced the fact that all the doubts regarding the nature of the disease are eliminated. This sixth stage is characterized by severe impairment of dhatu function, serious damage to the shrotas (the vessels within each dhatu) and the complications that involves related dhatus. The entire disease process can be aggravated by the toxic side effects of the drugs that are used to cure it. At this final stage, many of the diseases become a bit difficult to treat completely.
This Shat kriya kala provide the knowledge about the disease deection and treatment of illness to Ayurveda practioner at early stage .So we can arrest the disease at early stage ence recovery of disease become easier.