Concepts of Joints As Per Ayurveda-
We can turn our body as per our need.This flexibility,rotation,wide range of movements,locomotion etc can be possible by joints.
There are many joints present in the body.The joint is formrd by the fusion of bones which was well supported by soft tissues muscles, ligaments and tendons and cartilage.
The flexibility and movement of body is totally depends upon the type joint present in that portion of body.As different bony parts makes different types of joint.
For the survival movements is essential.We can’t imagine the life without movements.
अस्थी संयोगस्थानम् l (च.शा.७)
सन्धयःच अडग सन्धानात देहे प्रोक्ता कफान्वीता l (शा.सं. ५)
अस्थ्ना तु सन्धयो हि एताः केवलाः परिकीर्तिता: l
पेशी स्नायु सिराणा तु सन्धी संख्या न विध्यते ll (सू.शा.५)
सन्धयः तु द्वीविधा: चेष्टावन्त स्थीरा: च l
शाखासू हन्वो: कटयाच चेष्टावन्त: तु सन्धय: l
ग्रीवाया बहु चेष्टा: च पुष्ठ उरस्य अपि अचेष्टका: ll
शेषा: तु सन्धयः सर्वे विज्ञेया हि स्थिरा: बुध: ll (सू.शा.५/२६)
त एते सन्धयो अष्ट विधा:- कोर उलूखल सामुद्र प्रतर
तुन्नसेवनी वायसतुन्ड मन्डल शडखावर्ता: ll (सू.शा.५/३१)
कोर उदुखल सामुद्र प्रतर तुन्न सेवनी l
काकन्तुड मन्डलं च शंखवर्ते अष्ट सन्धयः ll(भा.प्र.२)
The branch f Ayurveda which deals with the study of joints of the body is called as Sandhi Shaareera . Sandhi Shaareera can be simulated with Ayurdevedic Arthrology (Arthrology = study of joints).
The word Sandhi means samyoga means meeting place or junction or union of two things.
By the perspective of body , sandhi means ‘asthi samyoga sthaana’ or meeting place of two or more bones.
According to Aacharya Sharangadhara ,the place where union of any two structures in the body can occurred with the help of Kapha dosha.
Classification of Sandhis –
According to rang of movements-
The Sandhis are classified in to two types-
Cheshtavanta or Cheshta yukta sandhis (Movable joints or Diarthroses) – These types of joints allows the free movements of joint.Joints moves in various directions with liberty due their power of good flexibility. These joints are presents in shakaas (limbs), hanu (jaw) and kati (pelvis).
Cheshtavanta sandhis are again divided in to two types-
Bahu-cheshtayukta sandhis – wide range of movements of joints can seen here. These types of joints are found in the limbs (elbow,knee,shoulder joints etc) and lower jaw (temporo – mandibular joint).
Alpa cheshtayukta sandhis – joints with the small range of movements( as compired to bahu cheshtayukta sandhis )can seen .Such joint are found in the vertebral column.
Sthira sandhis or Acheshta sandhis (Immobile joints)- These joints does not allow the movements that is these are stable in nature. All the other joints apart from those explained in Cheshtavanta sandhis are considered as Sthira Sandhis.
Classification of Sandhi –According to the ‘structure of joints’
These are of 8 types.They are-
Kora Sandhi – In this type of joints complete movements of joint in one direction can possible while there is partial movements of joint in opposite side can seen.The shpe of these joints are like Hinje.
Example- joints of anguli sandhi (joints of the fingers, inter – phalangeal joints), manibandha sandhi (wrist joint), gulpha, sandhi (ankle joints), janu sandhi (knee joint) and kurpara sandhi (elbow joint). These sandhis are compared to Hinge joints or Gingimus joints.
Ulukhala or Udukhala Sandhi – These is called as Ball and Socket joint in Modern science .In these type of joints ball like head of one bone is articulates with socket or pit of other bone. These joints allows pestle and mortar type of movements. Examples Ulukhala Sandhi are Kaksha sandhi (shoulder joint), Vankshana Sandhi (Hip Joint), Dashana sandhi (aretuculation of teeth bin their sockets etc.
Samudga Sandhi – These joints are box shaped or plate shaped (bowl). It can be compared to cavity joints
Examples of Samudga Sandhi are the joints found in Amsapeetha (glenoid cavity of scapula), Guda (coccygeal ) and Nitamba (liliac) regions.
Pratara Sandhi – These is very simple and plaine type of joints.In these types of joints surface of one bone articulates with the other surface of another bone.
Examples of Pratara sandhi can be found in the joints of Greva vamsha (cervical vertebrae) and Prushta vamsha (dorsal or thoracic vertebrae) i.e. articulations in between 2 vertebrae or inter-vertebral joints.
Tunna Sevani Sandhi – These joints are like a stitches or sutures between 2 bones.It is present like that one bone had stitched over the ther bone.
Examples of Tunna Sevani Sandhi can be found in the joints of shiraha kapala (surures of the skull) and kati kapala ( suture joints of pelvic bones). These joints can be compared to sutural joints.
Vayasa Tunda Sandhi – The shape of these joint is same as the beak of a crow.
Example of vayasa tunda sandhi can be found in the jopints of Hanu sandhi (Temporo – mandibular joints). These joints can be compared to crow beak joints.
Mandala Sandhi – These are round, fixed and cartilaginous joints found in some structures of the body. These joints can be compared with cartilaginous joint or annular joints.
Examples of Mandala sandhi can be found in Kantha (throat), Hrudaya (heart), Netra(eyes), Klomanadi(trachea)etc.
Shankavarta Sandhi – It is like the shape of spiral windings of a conch. It is compared with the membranous and fixed joints or spiral and cartilaginous joint.
Examples of Shankavarta sandhi can be seen in the joints of the srotra(ear) and sringataka regions.
Number of Sandhis
Aacharya Charak had explained 290 sandhis in human body while Aacharya Vagbhata explained 200 sandhis Aacharya Sushruta had explained 210 sandhis in human body.
(Joints in limbs)
(Joints of Trunk)
|Urdhva Jatrugat Sandhi
(Joints of head and neck)
|Anguli (in fingers and toes) – 3 x 4 = 12
Angushta (thumb, big toe) – 02
Janu (knee) / Kurpara (elbow) – 01
Gulpha (ankle) / Manibandha (wrist) – 01
Vankshana (hip) / Kaksha(shoulder) – 01
|Kati Kapala / Shroni (Hip, pelvis) -03
Prushtavamsha(spine) – 24
Prashwa (sides of the trunk) – 24
Uras (chest) – 08
|Greeva (neck) – 08
Kantha (throat) – 03
Haridaya / Kloma nadi (Heart / Trachea) – 18
Dantamula (roots of teeth) – 32
Kakalaka – 01
Nasa (nose) – 01
Vartma mandala (orbit,eye brow) – 02
Ganda (maxillae) – 02
Karna (ear), Shankha(temples) – 04
Hanu sandhi (mandibular joint), Bhru (eyebrows), Shankha upari (above temples) -06
Shiraha kapala (cranial sutures) -05
Murdha (head)- 01