Paribhasha – Definitions

अव्यक्त अनुक्त लेशोक्त सन्दिग्धार्थ प्रकाशिका: l
परिभाषा प्रकथ्यन्ते दिपिभूताः सुनिश्चीताः ll
वैद्यक परिभाषा प्रदीपिका

Paribhasha – definition help to understand and explore
Avyakta – unexpressed, hidden concepts
Anukta – unspoken,unexplained concepts
Leshokta – less explained concepts
Sandigdha – controversial,difficult-to- understand concepts of the science.
Like lamp helps to visualize thing properly, paribhasha helps to understand the science properly.

Triphala –
Haritaki – Terminalia chebula
Vibhitaki – Terminalia bellirica
Amalaki – Emblica offinalis
Dry fruit ring powders of these three, in equal quantities is called as Triphala. Synonyms of Triphala Churna – Phalatrika, Vara.

Trikatu –

पिप्पलि मारीचं शुण्ठी त्रिभिः त्र्यूषनं उच्यते ll
शारंगधर सम्हीता मध्यम खन्ड ६/१२

Pippali – long pepper fruit – Piper longum Maricha – black papper – Piper nigrum and Shunti – Ginger – Zingiber officinalis Are together in equal quantities is called as Trikatu or Trayushana.

Chaturushana –

त्र्यूषण सकनामुल कथीत चातुराशनम l
व्योषस्येव गुणाः प्रोक्ता अधिकाश्चतुरुषणे ll
भाव प्रकाश हरीतक्यादी वर्ग ६६

Chatur means four. Ushana means hot or pungent spices.
Trikatu + Pippalimoola ( root of Pippali ) is called as Chaturushana.
They are –
Pippali – long pepper fruit – Piper longum
Maricha – black pepper – piper nigrum and
Shunti – Ginger – Zingiber offcinalis
Pippalimoola – Root of Long Pepper – Piper longum
The qualities of Chaturushana is quite similar to Trikatu Churna. But it is hotter, stronger and more pungent.

Trimada –

मुस्त चित्रं विडडगत्र्च त्रिमदः समुदाह्रतः l
भैषज्य रत्नावली – ४/६६

Musta – Nut grass – Cyperus rotundus Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica Vidanga – False black pepper – Embelia ribes Are together called as Trimada. This combination improves digestion,useful in worm infestation. This combination is found in Navayasa Churna

Madhuratraya/Trimadhura –

घृतं गुडो माक्षिकत्र्च विज्ञेय मधुरत्रयम l
रसरत्न समुच्चय – १०/७०

Ghrita – ghee
Guda – jiggery
Makshika – honey
Are together called Trimadhura or Madhura traya. Tri or Traya means three. Madhura means sweet.

Trijataka – Trisugandhi –

त्वगेला पत्रकै: तुल्यै: त्रीसुगन्धी त्रिजातकम l
भाव प्रकाश कार्पुरादी वर्ग ७२

Twak – Cinnamon – Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Ela – Cardamom – Elettaria cardamomum
Patra – Cinnamomum tamala Are together called as trijata / Trisugandhi

Chaturjata –

चातुर्जत समाख्यात त्वगेलापत्रकेशरै: l
वैद्यक परिभाषा प्रदीप ३/१४७

Twak – Cinnamon – Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Ela – Cardamom – Elettaria cardamomum
Patra – Cinnamomum tamala
Nagakeshara – Mesua ferrea
Are together Called as Chaturjata.

 

Chaturbeeja –

मेथिका चन्द्रशूरश्च कालाजाजी यवानिका l
एतत चतुष्टय युक्त चातुर्बीजामिती स्मृतम ll
भावप्रकाश हरितक्यादी वर्ग ९८

Seeds of Methika – Fenugreek – Trigonella Foneum Graecum Chandrashura – Lepidium sativum Yavanika – Trachyspernum roxburghianum Ajaji – Cumin seed – Cuminum cyminum Are together called Chaturbeeja.

Brihat Panchamoola / Kanishta Panchamoola –

श्रीफला सर्वतोभद्रा पाटला गणीकारिका l
श्योनाकः पत्र्चभिश्च एतै: पत्र्चमुल महत मतम ll
भावप्रकाश गुडूच्यादि वर्ग २९

Brihat means big,Panch means 5, Moola means root. The roots of five big trees are considered here.
Bilva – bael tree – Aegle marmelos
Agnimantha – Premna mucronata
Shyonaka – Oroxylum indicum
Patala – Stereospermum suaveolens
Gambhari – Gmelina arborea – are called as Brihat Panchamoola

Dashamoola –

उभाभ्यां पत्र्चमूलाभ्या दशमुल उदाह्रतम l
भावप्रकाश गुडूच्यादी वर्ग ४९

Brihat and Laghupanchamoola are together called as Dashamoola. It is a very good anti inflammatory combination.

Laghu Panchamoola / Kanishta Panchamoola –

Laghu means small, Pancha means 5, Moola means root. The roots of five small herbs are considered here.
Brihati – Solanum indicum
Kantakari – Solanum xanthocarpum
Gokshura – Tribukus – terrestris
Shalaparni – Desmodium gamgeticum
Prishniparni – Uraria picta are together called as Laghu Panchamoola

Kantaka panchamoola –

करमर्दः त्रिकन्टक सैरेयक शतावरी घृधनख्य इति कन्टकसज्ञा l
सूश्रुत सम्हिता सूत्रस्थान ३८/७४

Kantaka means thorns. Root of five plants having thorns
Karamarda – Carissa congesta
Gokshura – Tribulus – Tribulus terrestris
Saireyaka – Barleria prionitis.
Shatavari – Asparagus – Asparagus recemosus
Grudhranakha – Himsra – Capparis sepiaria are together called as Kantakapanchamoola

Valli Panchamoola –

विदारी सारिवा रजनी गुडूच्यो अजशृंगी च इति वल्ली सज्ञः ll
सुश्रुत सम्हिता सूत्रस्थान ३८/ ८६

Valli means climber / creeper. This is the group of roots of five creepers. Though turmeric is not a creeper,still it is included here.
Vadari – Indian kudju – Pueraria tuberose
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus
Rajani – Turmeric – Curcuma longa
Guduchi – Indian tinospora – Tinospora cordifolia
Ajashrungi – Karkatashrungi – Pistachia chinensis

Truna panchamoola –

कुशः काशः शरो दर्भ इक्षुश्चैव तृनोदवम l
पत्र्चतृनमीद ख्यात तृणज पत्र्चमुलकम ll
भैषज्य रत्नावली परिशिष्ट ४/३४

Kush-Cannais Indica
Kash-Saccharum spontaneum
Shar-Saccharum Munja
Darbh-Desmostachya bipinnata
Ikshu-Saccharum officinarum

Panchavalkala – Panchaksheerl –

न्यग्रोधोदुम्बर अश्वत्थ पारीष प्लक्षपादपा: l
पतरत्र्चैते क्षिरीनो वृक्षास्तेषां त्वक पत्र्चवल्कलम ll
भावप्रकाश वटादिवर्ग १५

Valkala means bark. This is a group of five barks
Vata – Ficus benghalensis
Udumbara – Ficus glomerata
Ashwattha – Ficus religiosa
Plaksha – Ficus lacor
Parisha – Ficus arnottiana / Thespesia populnea
These have astringent and cleansing property. Hence decoction of this,is used in giving vaginal douche in case of infection and to irrigate wound to cleanse the wounde, to remove debris and heal faster.

Panchatikat – 5 bitter substances –

गुडूची निम्बमुलत्वक भिषग माता नीदीग्धीका l
पटोलपत्र इत्येतत पत्र्चतिक्त प्रकिर्तीतम ll
रसतरंगीणी २/१८

Guduchi – Indian Tinospora steam – Tinospora cordifolia
Nimba – Neem root bark – Azadirachta indica
Bhishag mata – Vasa – Adhatoda vasica
Nidigdhika – Kantakari – Solanum xanthocarpum
Patola – Pointed gourd – Trichosanthes cucumerina

Panchapallava – 5 barks

आम्र जम्बू कापिथ्याना बीजपुरकबिल्वयोः l
गन्धकर्माणी सर्वत्र पत्राणि पत्र्चपल्लवम ll
वैद्यक परिभाषा प्रदीप ३/१५२

Pallava – fresh shoots / leaves
Amra – Mango bark – Mangifera indica
Jambu – Jamun bark – Eugenia jambolana
Kapittha – Feronia limonia / Limonia acidissima
Beejapura – Citrus medica
Bilva – Bael tree bark – Aegle marmelos

Panchamruttika – 5 type of muds

इष्टीका गैरिका लोन भस्म वल्मीकमृत्तिका l
रसप्रयोगकुशलै: कीर्तिताः पत्र्चमृर्तिका: ll
रसरत्न समुच्चय १०/८१

Mruttika means Mud
Ishtika – mud from which tiles can be made
Gairika – Red ochre – Iron oxide
Lona – Saindhava Lavana
Bhasma – ash of Herbs
Mruttika – Bambi mitti / Deemak ki mitti.

Panchamruta – 5nectors

गव्य क्षीर दधी घृत मक्षिक चाथ शर्करा l
पंत्र्चमृत समाख्यात रसकर्मन प्रसाधाकम ll
रसतरगिनी २/२१

Panchamruta – nectors
Goksheera – cow milk
Go dadhi – cow curds
Go Ghrita – ghee
Makshika – Honey
Sharkara – suger
This is also used in Hindu spiritual rituals.

Panchagavya 5 cattle products –

गव्य क्षीर दधी घृत गोमूत्र गोमय तथा l
एकत्र योजित तुल्य पत्र्चगव्य इह उच्यते ll
रसतंरगिनी २/२२

Gavya means cattle products –
Goksheera – cow milk
Go Dadhi cow curds
Go ghrita – cow ghee
Go mutra – cow urine
Gomaya – cow dung

Mitrapanchaka –

आज्यं गुत्र्जाथ सौभाग्य क्षौद्र च पुरसंज्ञकम l
एतुत्तु मिलित विज्ञे: मित्रपत्र्चक उच्येत ll
रस तंरगिनी २/३७

Mitra Panchaka –
Ajya – cow ghee
Gunja – Abrus precatorius
Saubhagya – Tankana – Borax
Kshaudra – honey
Pura – Guggulu – Commiphora mukul
Dravaka Gana –
MItrapanchaka plus Guda (jiggery)
Mitra Panchaka nad Dravaka Gana are usually used in making Bhasma of metals and minerals. They help to melt the metal faster, at a lower temperature. Drava means liquid. Hence the name Dravaka gana. Once after melting the metal, these substances like jiggery, guggulu etc help to retain the higher temperature for a longer period of time, while making Bhasma.

 

Panchakola –

पिप्पली पिप्प्लीमुल चव्यचित्रकनागरै: l
पत्र्चभिः कोलमात्र यत पत्र्चकोल तदूच्यते ll
भावप्रकाश हरितक्यादी वर्ग ७२

Pippali-Piper longum
Pippalimula-long piper root
Chyavyak-Piper chebula
Chitrak-Plumbago zylanica
Naagar-ziziber officinalis

Shadushana – 6 spices –

पिप्पली पिप्प्लीमुल चव्य चित्रक नागरै:
मरीचेनान्वित नूनं षडूषणमुदीर्यते ll
भैषज्य रत्नावली ४/३८

Shadushana – 6 spices-
Shat means six. Ushana maens spices.
They are-
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – piper longum Pippalimoola – Long pepper root Chavya – piper cubeba Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica Nagara – ginger rhizome – Zingiber officinale Maricha – Black pepper – Piper nigrum

Ashtavarga –

जीवक ऋषभकौ मेदे काकोल्यौ ऋद्धी वृद्धीके l
अष्टवर्गो अष्टभिः द्रव्यै: काठीतः चरकादिभिः ll
भावप्रकाश हरितक्यादी वर्ग १२१

Ashtavarga –
Jeevaka – Malaxis acuminata
Rishabhaka – Manikara hexandra
Meda – Polygonatum Verticillatum
Kakoli – Fritillaria royei
Kshira Kakoli – Roscoea purpurea
Vruddhi – Habenaria intermedia
Ruddhi – Habenaria intermedia
Ashtavarga is made famous by certain companies, since it is used in preparing Chyawanprash.

Jeevaneeya gana –
Jeevaneeya means enlivening, which is anti aging, which improves life expectancy.
As per Bhavaprakasha –
Ashtavarga plus
Mudgaparni – Pasheolus trilobus,
Mashaparni – Teramnus labialis
Yashtimadhu – Licorice,
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulate.

Kakarashtaka dravya –

कलीडगं कारवेल्ल च कदली काकमाचिका l
कुसुम्भीका च कर्कोटी कुष्माण्ड कर्कटी तथा ll
ककाराष्टकं एतद्धी प्रोक्त रसविशारदै: l
वर्जयेत रससेवी च नित्यमेतत प्रयान्ततः l रसतरंगिणी ७/९९

These are 8 herbs having ‘ka’ as their frist letter. Kalinga – conessi bark / tellicherry bark / kurchi – Holarrhena antidysenterica Karavellaka – Bittergourd – Momordica charantia Kadali – Banana – Musa paradisiacal Kakamachi – solanum nigrum Kusumbhika – Safflower – Carthamus tinctorius Karkoti – Ribbed gourd – Luffa acutangulata Karkati – Cucumis utilissimus Kushmanda – white pumpkin / Ash gourd – Benincasa hispida When purified and processed Mercury is given for anti aging and rejuvenation purpose,these herbs consumption should be avoided.

Ksheerashtaka –

अविक्षीर अजाक्शीर गोक्षीर माहिष च यत l
उष्टीणा अथ नागीनां वडवाया: स्त्रियास्तथा ll
चरक सम्हीता सूत्रस्थान १/१

Group of 8 milks –
Aviksheera – sheep milk
Ajaksheera – goat milk
Goksheera – cow milk
Mahisha ksheera – buffalo milk
Ushtraksheera – camel milk
Hasthi ksheera – elephant milk
Ashwa ksheera – horse milk
Manusha ksheera – human milk

Dugdha Varga –

दुग्धिका उदूम्बरश्च अर्को न्यग्रोधो अश्वत्थ तिल्वकैl l
एषां दुग्धै समाख्यातो दुग्धवर्ग: समासत: ll
रसतरंगिणी २/२५

Dugdha varga in Plants-
Dugdhika
Udumbar
Arka
Nyagrodh
Ashwathya
Tilvak

Mutrashtaka –
अविमुत्र अजामुत्र गोमुत्र माहिष च यत l
हस्तीमुत्र अथोष्टस्य हयस्य च खरस्य च ll
चरक सम्हिता सूत्रस्थान १/१५

 

Mootra Ashtaka –
Group of 8 urines –
Avimutra – sheep urine
Ajamutra – goat urine
Gomutra – cow urine
Mahisha Mutra – Buffalo urine
Hasti Mutra – elephant urine
Ushtra Mutra – camel urine
Haya Mutra – horse urine
Khara Mutra – donkey urine

 

Kshara Ashtaka-
Kshara is obtained by ash of herbs. They are strong and pungent and used in digestive disorders, Ksharasutra therapy of fistula etc.

Kshara – yavakshara
Kasharadvaya – Yavakshara, swarjika kshara
Ksharatraya – Yava, swarjika, palasha, tilakshara mushkaka,
Ksharashtaka – yava,swarjika,palasha,tila,apamarga,snuhi,chinch,arka

Lavana traya –
Three salts
Saindhava,Sauvarchala (ruchaka) and Vida Lavana

Lavana Panchaka –
Saindhava,Sauvarchala (ruchaka),Vida Samudra, Aubdhida (romaka) Chullika lavana.

Lavana Shashtaka –
Samudra Lavana
Saindhana
Bida Lavana
Sauvarchala Lavana
Romaka Lavana
Chullika Lavana

Vishavarga –
Group of poisonous herbs used in treatment – Vatsanabha – Aconitum ferox Haaridra saktuka, Pradeepana,Saurashtrika,Shrungika,Kalakuta.Halahala,Brahmaputra – Bhavaprakaasha dhaatvadi varga

Upavishavarga –

अर्कक्षीर स्नूहीक्षीर लाडगली करवीरकम l
गुत्र्जाहिफेनो धत्तुर: सप्तापविषजातय: ll
भावप्रकाश धात्वादि वर्ग
विषतिन्दूकबीज च त्वहिफेन चरेचकम l
धत्तुरबिज विजया गुंजा भल्लातकाह्रवयः ll
अर्कक्षीर स्नूहीक्षीर लाडगली करवीरकम l
समाख्यातो गणोsय तु बुधै: उपविषभिध: llरस तरंगिणी २४/१६४

Group of less poisonous herbs used in therapeutice
Vishatinduka – Strychons nux vomica
Ahiphena – Papaver somniferum
Rechaka – jayapala – croton tiglium
Dhattura Beeja – Datura metel
Vijaya – Cannabis sativa
Gunja – Abrus Precatorius
Bhallataka – Semecarpus anacardium
Arka Ksheera – Latex of Euphorbia nerifolia
Langali – Gloriosa superba Linn.)
Karaveera – Taivetia neerifolia

snehavarga –
सर्पिस्तैलवसा मज्जा स्नेहेषु प्रवर मतम l

Snehavarga –
Group of fats
Sarpi – Ghee
Taila – Sesame oil
Vasa – Fat of animals
Majja – Bone marrow of animals

Amal Varga –
Group of sour herbs –
Jambira
Bijapuraka
Matulunga
Changeri
Chanakamla
Amlika
Kola
Dadima – Pomegranate
Ambashta
Tintidika
Naranga
Rasapatrika (chukrika)
Karavanda

Amalapanchaka
Fiva sour substances –
Amlavetasa
Jambeera
Matulunga
Naranga
Nimbuka

Taila varga –
Group of herbs that yield oil
Jyotishmati – Celastrus paniculata
Atasi – Linseed
Nimbataila – Neem oil
Tila – sesame
Apamarga – Achyranthes aspera
Siddhartha – Mustard
Somaraji
Vibhitaki Taila
Bakuchi – Psoralea corylifolia
Bhallataka Taila – Semecarpus anacardium
Narikelataila – coconut oil