Shodhana means cleansing.The process through which you can remove the doshas (impurities of dravya (medicinal substance)is called shodhana.
The dravya on which the process of shodhana done is called as Shudhidravya or shodhya dravya.And the substance with which it is treated for purification called as Shodhana dravya.
Purpose of Shodhana Karma-
Shodhan karma not only removes the unwanted materials from drugs but controls toxic effects in dravyas.
Shodhana process enhances the efficacy of drugs.
It reduces the intensity of astringent taste
Sharpness (Tikshantva )of dravya can be reduced by this process of shodhana
Reduces hardness of dravya
Removes the dust particles and make it insect free.
Types Of Shodhana-
Shodhana karma divided in to two types mainly.
1.Samanya shodhana- Samanya shodhana process is applicable to dravyas which comes in to same caterories like Maharasa,Uparasa,Ratna. he drugs belongs to same category,have similar types of impurities so with the help of Samanya shodhana e can removes the general impurities from Dravya.
Ex-Samanya shodhan of dhatu like swarna(gold),rajat(silver),loha (iron) etc
2. Vishesh Shodhana- The word vishesh means specific.The dravyas which contain high concentrated chemicals ca be removed out by this process.Each drugs have their specific and different types of impurities so for their removal vishesh shodhana is required.
|1||Swedana||Vaporizations of raw drugs in certain liquid material||Its results in brittleness of dravya||Hartal in Kushmand swarasa|
|2||Mardana||Trachuration with swarasa,kashaya,godugdha,gomutra||The drugs particle size becomes senergistic additives,so it acts as agonist||Jambir swaras used to triturate tamra patra|
|3||Murchana||Trachuration up to fine disintegration||Reduction in particle size||Parad by Adraka swarasa|
|4||Patana||Extracted is collected by giving the heat to substance till its vaporization||Separation of adulterants causes purification of medicines||Extraction of parad from hingu|
|5||Avap/Dhalan||First raw solid drugs can be melt and then dipped in to cold liuid||Reduces brittleness and separate adulterants from dravyas||Gandhaka in godugdha|
|6||Nirvap||Heating solid drugs and then dipped in to cold liquid||Reduces brittleness||Abhraka in triphala kwath|
|7||Galan||Filtration||Seperates the unwanted and heterogenous substances from dravya||Any filtrate after filtration|
|8||Prakshalana||Cleaning of dravya by proper washing||Removes the dust and insects||Balamool roots washing with water|
|9||Nimajjanam||Raw drugs should be dipped in to certain liquid for some period of time||Chemical changes from higher concentration to lower concentration takes place||Vatsnabha in godugdha ,gomutra|
|10||Bharjana||To fry||Unwanted part evaporates||Tankana|
|11||Sanyog||Adding of another drug||Minimizes the toxicity||Tankana in vastanabha|
|12||Vibhag||To separate the unwanted part||Minimizes the tikshantva||Rasankur in rason|
|13||Pachana||Dravya should be immersed in shodhana material and keeping on fire||Increases softness and reduces stickiness||Guggulu in godugdha/Triphala kwath|
|14||Shoshana||Drying in sunlights/moonlight||Results in absortion of dravya at tissue level||Apamarga bija|
|15||Sinchana||To spread the liquid on hotrat drugs||Results in absortion of dravya at tissue level||Apamarga bija|
|16||Sthapana||To keep the dravya in stable condition||Kalgunvridhi (increases quality of drugs)||Puran ghrita,puran guda|
|17||To peel||Skin removing||Separates the unwanted part||Ginger|
|18||To dehusk||Removing of husk from grains||Seperates unwanted parts||shalidhanya|