Smoking for the therapeutic purpose using a specially designed instrument or pipe is known by the name Dhumapana. Using a special instrument the herbal powders are burnt and the smoke emitted is ingaled. The accumulation of the kapha dosha in the head as well as respiratory system is best cleared by this procedure. Following vamana karma and nasya karma therapeutic smoking is practised as a follow-up procedure. In disorders like bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis therapeutic smoking is an effective treatment in relieving the symptoms by clearing the passages.
Depending upon the therapeutic effect following varieties of dhumapana is employed.
PROCEDURE OF DHUMAPANA:
The therapeutic smoking administered to relieve the symptoms of certain disorders is called as prayogika dhumapana. For this herbs of eladi gana except kushtha (Saussurea lappa) and tagara (Valeriana wallichii) is powdered. This herbal powder should be shaped into a hollow stick to carry out this therapy. This hollow stick is attached to the smoking pipe and its free end is lighted. The smoke emitted is then inhaled. Samana dhuma and Madhya dhuma are the synonyms of prayogika dhumapana.
The different herbs like vaidanga (Embelia ribes) that have an ability to clear the accumulation of dosha in the head are used in the preparation of hollow sticks for smoking in the vairechanika variety of dhumapana. This type of dhumapana is specially indicated in diseases of the head due to the morbid kapha dosha. This dhumapana is also known by the name tikshana or shodhana dhumapana.
Snaihika dhuma relieves the dryness and the irritation in the respiratory passages. This is very effective in relieving the morbidity of vata dosha. The herbs like seeds of eranda (Ricinus communis), stem of devadaru (Cedrus deodara), honey comb, dhupa (Shorea robusta), guggulu (Commiphora mukul) are used in the preparation of herbal stick. This stick is fixed to the smoking pipe, it is lighted and then the smoke emitted is inhaled to get the effect of snaihika dhumapana. This dhumapana is also known by the name mridu dhuma, snigdha dhuma and brimhana dhuma.
Dhumapana when administered to cure the kasa roga (cough) is referred as kasaghna dhuma. The herbs like brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (solanum surattense), pippali (Piper longum), shunthi (Zingiber offcinale), maricha (Piper nigrum), Kasamarda (Cassia occidentalis), hingu (Ferula narthex), manahshila (Arsenii disulphidum), karkataka shringi (Pistacia integerrima) etc are used in the preparation of the herbal stick. This is used for the therapeutic smoking in kasaghna dhuma.
INDICATIONS FOR DHUMAPANA
Dhumapana is indicated in many disorders and more particularly the diseases of the head. Further it is only advisable in clients between the age group of 12 to 80 years. Following list reveals the diseased condition where dhumapana is very much beneficial.
Shiro-gaurava :- Heaviness of the head.
Shirahshula :- Head ache.
Pinasa :- Chronic rhinitis.
Ardhavabedhaka :- Head ache affecting half portion
Karnashula :- Ear ache.
Netrashula :- Pain in the eyes
Kasa :- Cough.
Hikka :- Hiccough.
Shvasa :- Breathlessness.
Galagraha :- Irritation and stiffness of the throat.
Dantachala :- Lack of stability of teeth.
Praseka :- Watering of the mouth.
Karna roga :- Diseases of the ear.
Nasa roga :- Illness related to the nose.
Putinasya :- Chronic infection of the upper respiratory
Dantashula :- Tooth ache.
Hanugraha :- Stiffness at the sides of the neck.
Aruchi :- Lack of taste in the mouth.
Manyagraha :- Stiffness of the mandible.
Kandu :- Pruritus.
Krimi :- Worm infestation.
Mukhapanduta :- pallor in the mouth.
Kaphasrava :- Excessive salivation.
Galashundi :- Infective disorder of the throat.
Upajihvika :- Ranulla.
Khalitya :- Baldness.
Pinjaratva :- Premature graying of hair.
Keshapata :- Hair fall.
Kshavathu :- Sneezing.
Buddhimoha :- Confusional state
Atitandra :- Excessive drowsiness
Atinidra :- Excessive sleep
This is a special instrument used for the dhumapana. The instrument consists of a receptacle, shaft, water container, and a mouth piece. The rounded receptacle is mostly made up of metal or clay; where in the prescribed herbal powder is lighted and made to burn. Inside the receptacle at its depth there is a hole through which the smoke escapes into the shaft and then to the water container while in use. To prevent the herbal powder escaping into the shaft, this hole is blocked by a gauze piece so that only air and smoke can escape through this hole. The shaft is fitted to the water container, and when is in position almost reaches the bottom of the water container. The rounded water container has two openings; one is fitted with the shaft and the other with the mouth piece. 2/3rd of this container is filled with water so that the end of the shaft with in the container dips in water, and the opening of the mouth piece is above the level of the water. The mouth piece is made up of mental, wood or rubber and is fitted to the water container. While in use, the smoke is sucked through the mouth piece; the smoke from the receptacle through the shaft buddles through the water in the water container and then passes into the mouth piece. Thus it moistens and cools the smoke, as well as entraps some amount of the carbon particles.