Smoking for the therapeutic purpose using a specially designed instrument or pipe is known by the name Dhumapana. Using a special instrument the herbal powders are burnt and the smoke emitted is ingaled. The accumulation of the Kapha dosha in the head, as well as the respiratory system, is best cleared by this procedure. Following Vamana karma and Nasya karma, therapeutic smoking is practiced as a follow-up procedure. In disorders like bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis therapeutic smoking is an effective treatment in relieving the symptoms by clearing the passages.
Depending upon the therapeutic effect following varieties of dhumrapana are employed.
PROCEDURE OF DHUMAPANA:
The therapeutic smoking administered to relieve the symptoms of certain disorders is called as prayogika dhumrapana. For this herb of eladi gana except kushtha (Saussurea lappa) and tagara (Valeriana wallichii) is powdered. This herbal powder should be shaped into a hollow stick to carry out this therapy. This hollow stick is attached to the smoking pipe and its free end is lighted. The smoke emitted is then inhaled. Samana dhumra and Madhya dhumra are the synonyms of prayogika dhumrapana.
The different herbs like Vedanga (Embelia Ribes) that have an ability to clear the accumulation of dosha in the head are used in the preparation of hollow sticks for smoking in the vairechanika variety of dhumrapana. This type of dhumrapana is specially indicated in diseases of the head due to the morbid Kapha dosha. This dhumrapana is also known by the name tikshana or shodhana dhumrapana.
Snaihika dhumra relieves the dryness and irritation in the respiratory passages. This is very effective in relieving the morbidity of Vata dosha. The herbs like seeds of eranda (Ricinus communis), stem of devadaru (Cedrus deodara), honeycomb, dhupa (Shorea robusta), Guggulu (Commiphora Mukul) are used in the preparation of herbal stick. This stick is fixed to the smoking pipe, it is lighted and then the smoke emitted is inhaled to get the effect of snaihika dhumrapana. This dhumrapana is also known by the name mridu dhumra, snigdha dhumra and brimhana dhumra.
Dhumrapana, when administered to cure the kasa roga (cough), is referred to as kasaghna dhumra. The herbs like brihati (Solanum Indicum), kantakari (solanum surattense), pippali (Piper longum), shunthi (Zingiber Officinale), maricha (Piper nigrum), Kasamarda (Cassia occidentalis), hingu (Ferula narthex), manahshila (Arsenii disulphidum), karkataka shringi (Pistacia integerrima), etc are used in the preparation of the herbal stick. This is used for therapeutic smoking in kasaghna dhumra.
INDICATIONS FOR DHUMAPANA
Dhumapana is indicated in many disorders and more particularly the diseases of the head. Further, it is only advisable for clients between the age group of 12 to 80 years. The following list reveals the diseased condition where dhumrapana is very beneficial.
Shiro-gaurava:- Heaviness of the head.
Pinasa:- Chronic rhinitis.
Ardhavabedhaka:- Headache affecting half portion
Netrashula:- Pain in the eyes
Galagraha:- Irritation and stiffness of the throat.
Dantachala:- Lack of stability of teeth.
Praseka:- Watering of the mouth.
Karna roga:- Diseases of the ear.
Nasa roga:- Illness related to the nose.
Putinasya:- Chronic infection of the upper respiratory
Hanugraha:- Stiffness at the sides of the neck.
Aruchi:- Lack of taste in the mouth.
Manyagraha:- Stiffness of the mandible.
Krimi:- Worm infestation.
Mukhapanduta:- pallor in the mouth.
Kaphasrava:- Excessive salivation.
Galashundi:- Infective disorder of the throat.
Pinjaratva:- Premature graying of hair.
Keshapana:- Hair fall.
Buddhimoha:- Confusional state
Atitandra:- Excessive drowsiness
Atinidra:- Excessive sleep
This is a special instrument used for the dhumrapana. The instrument consists of a receptacle, shaft, water container, and a mouthpiece. The rounded receptacle is mostly made up of metal or clay; were in the prescribed herbal powder is lighted and made to burn. Inside the receptacle, at its depth, there is a hole through which the smoke escapes into the shaft and then to the water container while in use. To prevent the herbal powder from escaping into the shaft, this hole is blocked by a gauze piece so that only air and smoke can escape through this hole. The shaft is fitted to the water container, and when it is in a position almost reaches the bottom of the water container. The rounded water container has two openings; one is fitted with the shaft and the other with the mouthpiece. 2/3rd of this container is filled with water so that the end of the shaft within the container dips in the water, and the opening of the mouthpiece is above the level of the water. The mouthpiece is made up of metal, wood or rubber and is fitted to the water container. While in use, the smoke is sucked through the mouthpiece; the smoke from the receptacle through the shaft buddles through the water in the water container and then passes into the mouthpiece. Thus it moistens and cools the smoke, as well as entraps some amount of the carbon particles.